Saturday, December 8, 2018

Applications open for Advancing Theoretical Astrophysics Summer School

Advancing Theoretical Astrophysics Summer School

July 15-26, 2019 at University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Application due January 15, 2019
For more information, see

“Advancing Theoretical Astrophysics” is a two week long, international summer school intended to build and strengthen essential skills in physics and computation for a career in theoretical astrophysics. The summer school prioritizes a supportive, collaborative, and diverse learning environment.

The target groups for this school are graduate students pursuing a degree in astrophysics, with a BSc degree in physics or astrophysics (note that we will consider well-motivated exceptions on a case-by-case basis, such as early-stage postdocs wishing to change research area). One of our primary goals is to encourage young researchers who have an interest in pursuing theory, but have had only limited experience or access to resources, to make the leap. Attendees of the school will learn and employ a variety of computational methods, so a basic comfort level with linux and coding/scripting is expected.

The school will be a mix of short topical lectures and interactive problem solving, using methods that can be applied to a wide range of topics. Students will work collaboratively on several types of canonical problems (with guidance from teachers and more advanced students), gaining hands-on experience with cutting-edge techniques employed in modern theoretical astrophysics. Examples include setting up and solving non-linear differential equations, running numerical simulations of (magneto)hydrodynamic equations, and utilizing order-of-magnitude techniques to develop intuition for a physical problem. We will also provide training in essential complementary skills such as data visualisation, public speaking, proposal writing, and networking.

We welcome applications from everyone, but we especially encourage applicants from under-represented groups and countries with access to less resources for theoretical astrophysics. We hope to not only provide students with the tools to succeed in theoretical astrophysics, but to advance the science itself by opening the conversation to a diverse range of viewpoints, creating new pathways and approaches to solving the most difficult and interesting problems in the universe.

Confirmed Lecturers/Mentors/Facilitators: 
Camille Avestruz (University of Chicago/University of Michigan), Nicole Cabrera Salazar (Movement Consulting), Chiara Ceccobello (Chalmers University of Technology), Jane Dai (University of Hong Kong), Jason Dexter (CU Boulder), Sebastian Heinz (U Wisconsin, Madison),  Daniela Huppenkothen (University of Washington, Seattle), Andrew King (University of Leicester), Nicole Lloyd-Ronning (Los Alamos National Laboratory/University of New Mexico), Sera Markoff (University of Amsterdam), Gibwa Musoke (University of Amsterdam), Samaya Nissanke (University of Amsterdam), Smadar Naoz (University of California, Los Angeles), Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz (University of California, Santa Cruz/DARK Copenhagen), Irene Tamborra (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen), Alexander Tchekhovskoy (Northwestern University)

Wednesday, August 29, 2018

TAURUS Scholar Spotlight: Analis Lawrence

The fifth TAURUS Scholar Spotlight of the summer focuses on Analis Lawrence, who recently graduated from Florida International University with a major in Physics and minors in Astronomy and Mathematics.  She will be attending the University of Florida as a graduate student in the Physics Department in the fall of 2018.  This summer Analis is working with Prof. Brendan Bowler on the Galactic kinematics of exoplanet host stars using Gaia, as part of the TAURUS research program at The University of Texas at Austin. He sat down with Analis recently for this interview.

BB: What inspired you to pursue a career in astronomy or science in general?  What draws you to science in the first place?

AL: A general passion for learning inspired me to pursue a career in astrophysics. But I have been most enchanted by reading and hearing about Albert Einstein’s work and his thought experiments on gravity, space, and time. I’ve been interested in science since a young age but not physics and astronomy until later in my academic career when I started going to schools that were STEM-focused.  Exposure to physics for me came once I took a high school physics course, and later in college, when I got involved with the astronomy club at the Florida International University.  I also became interested in astronomy through documentaries. 

BB: Please tell me more about yourself. What do you do for fun?

AL: For fun, I enjoy endurance running, playing and watching tennis, and painting when I have the time. My normal routine is a six-mile run in the mornings, which I do a few times each week.  I also enjoy spending time with my friends and my loved ones.

BB: In your opinion, what qualities makes astronomy so unique and compelling?

AL: What makes astrophysics so compelling to me is our insignificant size in the universe, yet how much space and time there is to explore.  It’s easy to forget until you look up. I like that astronomy ponders big questions that are truly amazing, from the origins of the universe to the nature of black holes to the question “Are we alone?”  What I find most appealing is space-time physics and cosmology from a theoretical perspective, which is the direction I aim to pursue in graduate school.  I’m looking forward to exploring the theoretical astrophysics groups at UF.

BB: Is there anything that you’re particularly proud of that you’d like to share— for example, something that’s happened along your academic or personal trajectory?

AL: I am most grateful for two REU’s at the University of Chicago. During the summer of 2016, I calibrated a photomultiplier tube for a liquid Xenon detector for their dark matter group with advisors Luca Grandi and Richard Saldanha. And the summer after, with Hsiao-Wen Chen, I carried out a statistical modeling study on highly ionized oxygen in star-forming galaxy halos. I then compared my model to observations of low-redshift galaxies from Hubble.

BB: What mentors, teachers, or role models have been the most inspiring to you in your life?

AL: All of my teachers, coaches, parents, and family have been inspiring in my life.   My most influential mentors have been in college, especially the particle physics and astrophysics professors at FIU.  My mentor at FIU was Dr. Boeglin who studies nuclear physics. And Dr. Webb’s astronomy lectures and star parties first got me interested in the field as early as freshman year.

Documentaries and books by theoretical physicist Brian Greene have been especially captivating, and I have loved listening to his World Science Festival discussions with scientists and philosophers.  I appreciate the way he’s able to simplify complex concepts for the public.  All of these helped inspire me to change my major. 

My high school physics teacher Mr. Smith also jumpstarted my interest in physics. He gave me an appreciation for critical thinking and brought much energy and enthusiasm to learning physics.

BB: What challenges and obstacles have you faced in your career? How have you overcome these challenges? 

AL: Attending schools in an underprivileged area has made me a hard worker and has taught me to try to think outside of the box, or to better realize that there is no box. Other schools tended to have more, enhanced resources for learning, and students there may have been introduced to physics earlier in their careers.  But I was fortunate to attend schools with great STEM programs and teachers who exposed me to new opportunities and an interdisciplinary education.  

BB: You’ll be heading to the University of Florida for graduate school next month— congratulations!  What are you most looking forward to at UF?

AL: I am mostly looking forward to meeting the faculty in the astrophysics theory group and the possibility to explore the different research opportunities, including LIGO.  I’m also looking forward to TA-ing and meeting my fellow grad students.

BB: What advice would you give to high school and undergraduate students of color interested in following your path?

AL: Keep your curiosity alive and be yourself.  Always work hard.

BB: What are your future and long-term career goals?

AL: I hope to become a professor. My interests are in space-time, black holes, and cosmology. Somewhere along the line, I want to help fix the minority and gender gap in physics education and careers.

Spotlight shared by Prof. Caitlin Casey, director of the TAURUS program.

Wednesday, August 22, 2018

TAURUS Scholar Spotlight: Gerlinder Difo Cheri

The fourth TAURUS scholar spotlight of the summer focuses on Gerlinder Difo Cheri, a rising senior at the University of the Virgin Islands. Gerlinder is working with Andrew Vanderburg this summer, searching for evidence of planetary destruction around the burned out remnants of stars like our Sun.

Gerlinder Difo Cheri joins us at the University of Texas at Austin from more than two thousand miles away in the US Virgin Islands. Coming to UT Austin poses both challenges and opportunities by virtue of the university’s sheer size: the number of students at UT Austin (about 51,000) is a bit more than half the total population of the US Virgin Islands (100,000). This summer, Gerlinder is making the most of the opportunities and resources in pursuit of his goals and ambitions.

Gerlinder grew up on a steady diet of science- and technology-related media. He recalls being inspired at an early age by scientists he saw on television, like Bill Nye the Science Guy, who “just went out and solved things.” Gerlinder’s interest in astronomy seemed natural to him. “How can you not be interested in astronomy?” he asks. These science and engineering role models drove him to enroll at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) and begin studying computer science.

Once he arrived, Gerlinder found the professors at UVI to be valuable role models as well. Before enrolling there, his role models were scientists and engineers (fictional or otherwise) he saw on television, ranging from Neil Degrasse Tyson to Tony Stark. But when he arrived at UVI, for the first time he met people who lived on his island and were pursuing his passion. Gerlinder found it indispensable to ask his professors about the challenges and struggles they faced.

Despite Gerlinder’s interest in astronomy, he was unable to dive in to the subject when he first enrolled at the UVI because the school did not offer any astronomy courses at that time. So when UVI offered their first astronomy class ever, Gerlinder immediately signed up. From there, Gerlinder took a leap and applied to be a TAURUS scholar at UT, which brought him here.

“The future of astronomy is beautiful and expansive,” Gerlinder says. He sees and values how astronomy can capture the public imagination, like how his imagination was captured as a child learning about science and technology from communicators on television. He recognizes, however, that initiative is required to overcome barriers. When asked what advice he might give to a younger student in a similar position to himself, Gerlinder says “You have to actively search for what you want to do, and don’t just wait for it to fall into your lap." If you take the first step, you might just find yourself studying the stars.

Spotlight shared by Prof. Caitlin Casey, director of the TAURUS program.

Thursday, August 9, 2018

TAURUS Scholar Spotlight: Oscar Cantua

The third TAURUS Scholar Spotlight of the summer is about Oscar Cantua, who is a physics major at the University of Texas San Antonio, just 100 miles down the road from UT Austin.  Oscar is working with Dr. Jorge Zavala this summer on the characterization of some of the Universe's most luminous and dusty galaxies.

Oscar Cantua joins TAURUS from a familiar institution that is also a part of the UT System: the University of Texas at San Antonio. Despite being less than 100 miles from his hometown and in the same educational system, Oscar says that this summer's research experience represents a new world of opportunities to pursue his future career in astronomy.

Oscar’s interest in astronomy goes back to his childhood, when he first moved to the US from Mexico and used to read a lot of books to learn English. He realized that science books, and particularly astronomy-related storiesm were the most interesting to him. Some years later, astronomy went from being a hobby to a potential professional career after he spent a summer working at the NASA Johnson Space Center (yes, NASA!) as part of the Texas High School Aerospace Program. Now at UT San Antonio, Oscar is a physics major with a minor in astronomy. 

Oscar is part of the UT San Antonio's Top Scholar program, which combines a comprehensive four-year merit-based scholarship with personalized experiences in academics, leadership and community service. Thanks to this opportunity, he was able to get involved in scientific research early in his college career, analyzing data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the nature of binary systems in nearby galaxies, under the supervision of Prof. Eric Schlegel. This summer, Oscar is jumping wavelengths from the very short and energetic part of the spectrum to the longest-wavelength observations achieved with the most powerful radio telescopes in the world, in order to identify and study the most distant dusty star-forming galaxies in the Universe.

Looking back on the past, Oscar realized that it has not been easy to reach this point in his professional life.  He is a first-generation college student, living far away from his family, and having to work while studying. Now he is closer to his dream of going to graduate school, not only with passion and enthusiasm for astrophysics but also with abundant knowledge and experience. 

Oscar's advice to young people, particularly to those belonging to underrepresented groups like him, is simply "never stop chasing your dreams.”

Spotlight shared by Prof. Caitlin Casey, director of the TAURUS program.

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program (DSFP)

Applications from URM students encouraged.

We are pleased to announce that the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program is now accepting applications for new students at

The LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program (DSFP) is a supplement to graduate education in astronomy, intended to teach astronomy students essential skills for dealing with big data. You don't need to know anything about data science to apply, you just need to be excited to learn! 

The DSFP consists of three, one-week schools per year over a two year period. On top of teaching our students the skills they need for modern survey astronomy, we also aim to create a collaborative, supportive learning environment, and work to empower our students to teach the skills they learn to others. We strive to create an inclusive program, and particularly encourage applications from students from traditionally underrepresented groups in astronomy. 

Please visit to learn more!

Lucianne Walkowicz, Director
Adam Miller, Program Director

Wednesday, July 25, 2018

TAURUS Scholar Spotlight: Gabriella Sanchez

This week's TAURUS Scholar Spotlight focuses in Gabriella Sanchez, a rising senior at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa.  Gabriella's research focuses on gas outflows in nearby galaxies.  She recently sat down with her research mentor at UT, Dr. Justin Spilker, to discuss her path to TAURUS and what's in store for her future.

JS: Who are you/where are you from?

GS: I’m Gabriella Sanchez. 21 years old. I was born and raised on Oahu, Hawaii’s most populated island. I am the 5th of seven children. And will be the second to graduate from college next year. I’m majoring in astrophysics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

JS: What inspired you to pursue a career in astronomy or science?
GS: Honestly, I thought it would be pretty cool. I was always interested in NASA and outer space. To me, astrophysics seemed like a challenge and the most interesting major of my choices. I wanted to pursue a career that made me think critically and that I would always be fascinated by. In addition, I specifically chose astrophysics because I was interested in astronomy, but I wanted to learn/use a lot of math (I like math) and physics concepts.

JS: What aspects of your life do you think led you to do astronomy?
GS: As a child, I was always curious. I think I thought about space a lot and always had the need to know what else is out there in the universe. My favorite movie at one point in elementary was Armageddon. I thought it was absolutely amazing! Of course, now that I’m more informed I see that it’s full of inaccuracies, but still… it’s a great movie! And perhaps the little kid in me dreamed of being an astronaut or discovering new objects in space.

JS: What are you most proud of so far in your life / career?
GS: I’m most proud of a lot of things that I’ve experienced so far this year. First, I’m proud of where I am mentally. I feel I grew so much as a person and an adult. I’m proud I finally took initiative in applying to REUs and got accepted into 3 out of 5. I’m proud I’ve made it even this far in my college education, and glad at how much I was able to push myself. Lastly, I’m incredibly proud of myself for accepting this TAURUS internship and finally braving the experience of leaving home and being on my own for the first time. It’s been one of the greatest experiences in my life so far!

JS: Wow, hopefully this summer doesn't disappoint! What mentors, teachers, or role models have been the most inspiring to you in your life?
GS: My biggest role models have definitely been my parents. They both didn’t have the opportunity to get a college education, didn’t come from “well-to-do” families. For so many years, they have struggled and sacrificed a lot, raising seven kids, but they always reminded us to work hard and to never do anything less than our best. Seeing them work so hard, and continue to do so, to provide for their family, and being able to give myself the opportunity for a better future and career has been my greatest motivation in life.

JS: Where to next? Where do you see yourself in 5, 10 years?

GS: In five years or so I see myself with better experience in the research field and working with other astronomers. I hope to be working on my masters/PhD. I don’t have an exact plan to follow. I’d like to take my time and experience different fields of work. I’d also like to start a family sooner rather than later in my life. At the moment, I’m looking towards having a career outside academia but staying within the astronomy community.

Spotlight shared by Prof. Caitlin Casey, director of the TAURUS program.

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Student Highlight: Betsy Hernandez

Betsy is a first generation Dominican-American who has had a non-traditional career trajectory. Betsy has loved science and math since childhood, but she and her parents were unaware of the vast careers in STEM, and so she initially pursued a path in medicine at the City College of New York of the City University of New York (CUNY). Once there, she learned about research and other nonmedical careers in science. She later transferred to Hunter College CUNY and obtained a bachelor's in Physics and Mathematics. While at Hunter College, Betsy began her astronomy research through the AstroCom NYC Fellowship, which is affiliated with CUNY schools and the American Museum of Natural History. Her other astronomy research experiences were through GRAD MAP at the University of Maryland in College Park and through the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) at Space Telescope Science Institute where her research focused on galaxies. During her year as a Helen Fellow she has mentored youth, and performed a theoretical research project analyzing galaxies and black holes. Afterwards, she will continue with her education through the two-year Princeton Post Baccalaureate program. Betsy then hopes go on to graduate school and ultimately become a professor. Additional interests include assisting in astronomy outreach events like stargazing, and non-STEM work like cake decorating and Latin dancing, specifically, dancing to merengue, bachata, salsa, and cha-cha.

What’s an average day like for you?
 My days vary throughout the week, so I try to focus on one task per day. I attempt to schedule meetings, talks, and internship on the same days to allow me to exclusively work on my research or lesson plan on other days. For example, I will prioritize developing my lesson plan for internship for the week on Mondays. Tuesdays and Thursdays, I have my education weekly meeting, astronomy colloquium, and internship. Wednesdays and Fridays, I prioritize research and astronomy related work. Time management was very difficult in the beginning because I tried to do a bit of everything each day and often felt like I did not get much accomplished. After switching to my current schedule, I feel I get more work done.

In your opinion, what qualities make your work so unique and compelling?
As a Helen Fellow, you get a taste of what it's like to be a professor in that your responsibilities are primarily teaching and research. Juggling everything can be the hardest part because it's easy to prioritize teaching over research. I mentor six high school girls with different sets of skills on a research project for about four hours a week. They often forget material we cover, so developing a lesson plan that challenges everyone without leaving anyone behind can be difficult.
On the research side, I worked closely with my mentors to develop my project, and as a result I was able to take ownership of my work early on rather than feeling like I was working on someone else’s project. I currently work on a computational research project simulating the motions of stellar mass black holes in active galactic nucleus disks using a hydrodynamic grid code, the Pencil Code. I have been examining how active galactic nucleus disks, which are composed of gas, can drive changes in the orbital radius of stellar mass black holes. The project goal is to determine if binary black hole mergers can occur in the center of active galaxies in order to explain the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory observations of these binary mergers. I love this project because it incorporates black holes, which I love, and finding answers to current scientific questions.

You recently gave a talk in Spanish about gravitational waves at Columbia’s Astronomy Outreach event.  What made you want to give such a talk?  How did it go?
There are multiple reasons why I wanted to give an astronomy talk in Spanish. My mom doesn't speak English and growing up I had friends whose parents did not speak English either. Our parents also were unaware of STEM fields beyond medicine and engineering. I wanted to share my passion with my mom and give her insight into what I do, as well as inform those whose primary language is Spanish about additional STEM fields. One of my career goals is to increase the number of people of color in STEM through accessibility and inclusion.
I gave a talk on black holes because I find these objects fascinating. I wanted to share with others what we know, what we don’t yet understand, and ongoing research. As a kid I used to think that everything was discovered, and I know others who thought the same. I wanted to show the public that there is much that scientists are examining because there is much we yet don’t understand.
I was told that my talk was very good. Sadly, attendance was a bit poor. Some of the reasons for this may have been because the talk was around finals week, which means many of the students were not around. The talk fell during 5 de Mayo weekend, and many Spanish speakers I knew had prior engagements. Finally, we still have not figured out what are the best outlets to announce this event beyond Facebook and word of mouth.

Please tell us about yourself.  What’s your story?
I'm a first-generation Dominican American. I loved science and math as a child. My parents encouraged me to become a physician, because they believed high-income jobs were limited to lawyers, doctors, and engineers. Consequently, my sight was set on becoming a pediatrician after graduating high school.
As a pre-med student at City College of New York (CCNY) of the City University of New York (CUNY), I was first exposed to research opportunities and careers through the Earth and Atmospheric Science Department. During this time, I obtained an REU with NASA Goddard Institute of SpaceStudies. From this experience, I learned that our contributions to science are important even if our findings fall short of our desired outcome, that research is nothing like school work, and that we do not always find a solution at the end of a research project. In 2010, I decided to switch paths and began to pursue a degree in physics at Hunter College CUNY, after both discovering my desire to become a physician stemmed mostly from my parents, and realizing that I was a very curious person who loved deciphering how things work.
Since becoming an AstroCom NYC fellow in the spring of 2014, my path to a physics career has become much clearer and my resolve has strengthened. I developed the drive to obtain a Ph.D. in Astrophysics, through the experiences as an AstroCom NYC fellow and other diversity programs, specifically Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP), Graduate Resource for Advancing Diversity with Maryland Astronomy and Physics (GRAD-MAP), National Astronomy Consortium (NAC), and Helen Fellowship. Each of these programs has introduced me to a variety of projects that have helped me hone in on the area of astronomy that I would like to focus on and introduced me to many members of the astronomy community, so much so that now when I attend conferences I always see people who I have met elsewhere.

Who inspired you as you were pursuing your career, and how?
After switching paths, I was lucky to be encouraged to apply to AstroCom NYC by Kelle Cruz. The program was vital to my success in Astronomy. Kelle became my career mentor and encouraged me to attend conferences and apply to programs that would further my career. My research mentor Ari Maller tried to incorporate my interests into our project and inform me of talks and conferences that would interest me. Working with Suvi Gezari confirmed my desire to work on Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Seeing a plenary given by Philip Hopkins at the 229th AAS conference gave me the language to explain what I wanted to do long-term. I spoke to him afterwards and he gave me advice on how to get started working on simulations. Working Mordecai-Mark Mac Low and Wladimir Lyra has confirmed my desire to work on simulations and made my desire to work on AGN even more. Though I can’t say that anyone inspired me throughout my career, there are many people who have supported, encouraged, and given me the tools needed to pursue my interests.

What challenges or obstacles have you faced in your career, and how have you overcome them?
I experienced hardships within my first year of undergraduate study, which included health issues and financial strife that forced me to procure a retail job. Consequently, working and health complications led to some bad grades, class withdrawals, and long gaps in my years of study. Balancing my health, schoolwork, research, and other responsibilities, like helping my elderly mother have been exceedingly challenging. In order to stay on course, I have implemented techniques to prevent my challenges from impeding my academic performance; these include informing my mentors of personal factors that could affect my academic/research work and creating a schedule that allows room for alterations in case an emergency arises.

People of color, especially women of color, are severely underrepresented in our field.  Can you point to any factors (specific programs, individual mentors, etc) that helped you succeed?
There are many programs with the goal to diversify astronomy that have helped me succeed. The first is AstroCom NYC in 2014, which has been the program that has had the biggest impact. Through the program I had a research mentor, Ari Maller, and a professional mentor, Kelle Cruz, assigned to me until I graduated. I could also seek help be it research, professional development, and other from the other faculty in the program, these include Saavik Ford, Barry McKernan, Dennis Robbins, Tim Paglione, Charles Liu, Matt O’Dowd, Quinn Minor, Emily Rice, and Jillian Bellovary. I also received a laptop, tuition assistance, a metrocard, and funding to attend conferences during my fellowship. In 2015, I received the yearlong stipend from the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP) to fund my research. I became a Graduate Resource for Advancing Diversity with Maryland Astronomy and Physics (GRAD-MAP) scholar and attend the winter workshop in 2015 and summer research opportunity in 2016 with Tingting Liu and Suvi Gezari. Through the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC), I completed a research project at Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in 2017 with Ivelina Momcheva. Finally, the Helen Fellowship has allowed me to work with Mordecai-Mark Mac Low at AMNH on a research project that I am very passionate about. I have gained teaching experience and funding to purchase materials and attend conferences that will further my career.

Can you share any ideas you have about making astronomy a more equitable and inclusive community?
I think it’s important to have people from different backgrounds in committees that serve the community, because people of various groups have an understanding of the needs unique to their groups. Also, visibility is important to inspire aspiring astronomers. For example, some people have told me that I’m a role model because I’m a woman, a person of color, and I have a nontraditional career path in STEM. As a nontraditional Latina, I can speak on behalf of components that helped me and I that have struggled with, which a caucasian man who had no gaps in his education cannot. Even though people outside a group can be aware of challenges facing that group, there will be components that they do not know or could not understand. For example, I consider colorblindness when creating my presentations, but I cannot formulate all the important components for someone with visual impairment to follow a presentation as would Wanda Diaz Merced, who is a blind astronomer. I would say that continuing programs that promote diversity, outreach to inform various groups how they can be part of the community, ask what they need to succeed in the community, and place those interested in visible roles will change and grow the community so that it is more equitable and inclusive.

What advice would you give to young women of color interested in following your path?
Be sure to pursue what you love and not what others expect, and this includes your parents. You’ll face a number of challenges that will require stubbornness and passion to get you through. Ask senior people in your field of interest what skills you need to develop to succeed and what can you expect. For example, I was interested in becoming a theoretical cosmologist, so I would ask those in the field what were the programming languages beyond Python that would be useful to learn. As a result, I was not surprised learning that I needed to use Fortran in my computational project. Avoid toxic people, whether they are family or important in the field you are interested in. Surround yourself with supporting people who encourage you and listen to their advice. I was given really great professional advice from a professor. He said if you can imagine waking up on a cold Tuesday morning at 5am, happy to go work, then you have found your career. I’m a night person, so I say I know that I am meant to be an astronomer because I look forward to work, and I’m happy staying up late working on my project.

Any final words?
Take advantage of opportunities, whether they are fellowships, research projects, conferences, etc. Finally, try participating in a variety of research projects before settling on one that will require years of investment such as a thesis project. While one project made me interested in using observational data, another showed me I was more interested in using processed data such as that in surveys rather than using raw data. Other projects confirmed my interest in black holes and simulations.
There are different mentoring styles, and it’s important to figure out your mentoring needs. Some people require micromanaging mentors that check on them daily, while others prefer mentors that are less hands on. Some people require mentors which they have a personal connection with, such that they can share with them aspects of their personal lives, while others desire strictly a professional relationship with their mentor. Understanding your own mentoring needs and discussing that with potential mentors can be important for achieving success.
Be kind to yourself. The nature of research is that we don’t know the answer, so don’t feel bad that things are not moving along as you would like. Also do activities that feed your soul. I dance as a hobby. Dancing revives me and makes me really happy, as a result I look forward to working and can focus better.